school uniform is an outfit—a set of standardized clothes—worn
primarily for an educational institution. They are common in primary and
secondary schools in various countries (see list of countries below).
When used, they form the basis of a school's dress code.|
school uniforms have tended to be subdued and professional. Many
believe that uniforms cut down on individuality. Boys' uniforms often
consist of dark short or long trousers and light-colored shirt, often
with a tie. Girls' uniforms vary greatly between countries and schooling
systems, but typically consist of a dress or a blouse worn either with a
skirt or culottes or under a pinafore. The use of a blazer or suit-like
jacket for either gender is also fairly common, especially in countries
with relatively cold weather. In some countries, such as Japan, school
uniform is essentially standard in all schools using it, but in others,
such as Great Britain, each school has an individual uniform, varying in
colour and often making use of badges.
A list of countries employing major use of school uniforms are:
smocks are the most widely known school uniforms of public schools in
Argentina. This appears to be a reflection of the Italian influence
since Argentina was one of the major destinations for Italian immigrants
in the late 19th and early 20th century. Several European countries in
the late 19th century, especially France and Italy , instituted smocks
as a school uniform. They were seen as a way of covering the differences
in the clothing of children so that poor children would not be
embarrassed by their poor clothing. The children in state schools do not
require formal uniforms and children wear their own clothes under their
smocks, however, many private schools did require uniforms.
Private schools in Argentina have formal school uniforms; most of them have adopted English-style school uniforms.
uniforms in Australia originally followed the British models. Most
private and government schools, in all Australian states, have a
compulsory uniform policy, though the degree of enforcement varies. For
boys, the uniforms generally include a button-up shirt and/or polo shirt
together with either short trousers (especially for summer wear) or
long trousers, often in grey. Where short trousers are to be worn, long
(knee-length) socks in school colours are often required. Girls'
uniforms generally include skirts, culottes, dresses, jumpers, blouses
and/or poloshirts and sometimes also trousers and shorts.
private schools, uniforms for either gender often include a blazer, tie
and hat. A different uniform specifically for sports is usually worn for
physical education activities. These can include skin tight leggings,
shorts, tennis skirts/netball skirts.
especially primary schools, in Australia tend to be more flexible with
the way the school uniforms are worn than most private schools, which
are strict regarding presentation of the school uniform.
recent times Year 12 (and in some schools, Year 11) students at some
Australian schools have been allowed to wear special jumpers (Leavers
Jumpers) or printed tops to denote their final-year status. In some
schools this has taken the form of a different coloured jumper
(sometimes white or cream), or a special commemorative year-12 top (e.g.
a rugby top) with the last two digits of the year and a name or
nickname displayed (shown at right). Alternatively, tops are sometimes
printed with the names of all students in that year level. Some schools
also have different ties or blazers for senior years.
BrazilAlmost all Brazilian schools obligate their students to wear uniforms,
with some exceptions in high school. Uniform is usually blue jeans, a
school padronized t-shirt and shoes.
uniforms are mandatory throughout public schools in Burma, from
kindergarten until the 10th standard. From kindergarten to the 4th
standard, the compulsory boy uniform is a white shirt and green pants,
which can be short or long. Shoes and Burmese sandals may be worn. The
girl uniform is similar, consisting of a white shirt and a skirt or
pants. From 5th standard until matriculation, traditional Burmese attire
is considered appropriate school uniform. The boy uniform is a white
shirt (with a Mandarin collar or uncollared) and a green sarong called a
paso, along with Burmese sandals. For girls, a traditional Burmese
blouse (either the yinzi, with a front opening, or the yin-phon, with a
side opening) and a green sarong called a htamein are worn, along with
are now fashionable in Cambodian schools. Before the school uniform,
students would usually wear a white shirt and a skirt or pair of
trousers in blue or black. In recent years, The school uniform has
become stronger and more durable, making it more suitable for education.
In both Primary and Secondary education, both male and female students
are allowed to wear whatever style they like, as long as it is within
the school's dress code. However, in high school, The female student's
skirt must be knee length. The dress is almost always in the Khmer
traditional style Sampot with the pleat generally at the left or right
and sometimes at the middle like Sampot Samloy.
Most public schools in Canada do not require that students wear
uniforms, but most include rules against indecent or offensive clothing.
Many regions of Canada have publicly-funded Catholic schools, and many
of those schools have uniforms. Prior to the integration of
Newfoundland's public (government-funded) school system in the late
1990s, those public schools administered by the Catholic Church mandated
strict, uniform-like dress codes (shirts and ties for boys, dresses or
skirts for girls) at the elementary and junior high school levels,
lifting most restrictions for high school students. In recent years,
some schools have eliminated skirts and kilts, in favour of dress pants
for girls, or replaced skirts with culottes or a garment called a skort
which is a skirt that has an attached short on the inside for modesty.
Also, bike shorts are sometimes worn under skirts. The tops are either
dress shirts or golf shirts, and either sweaters or sweatshirts are
worn. Grey or khaki dress pants are worn by both boys and girls.
In Chile, most schools have a uniform
Until 1930, it was uncommon for students to wear a uniform. During
the government of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo ,all students became obliged
to wear a school uniform.
Under the government Eduardo Frei Montalva , a unified uniform was
introduced for all public and private schools and other education
Today, the traditional uniform has disappeared principally in private schools, who have preferred to use a customized one.
Uniforms are a common part of the schools in China. Almost all
secondary schools as well as some elementary schools require students to
wear uniforms. Uniforms in mainland China usually consist of two sets,
one for summer and the other for winter. Uniforms for boys in the winter
usually consist of a zip up sweater and pants, and a collared shirt
(usually white) with shorts or pants. The uniforms for girls in the
winter are basically the same as the boys' uniform. However, the summer
uniform for girls consist not only of a collared shirt and pants, they
also have the option of a skirt.
School uniforms are used in Cuba. All students, regardless of age or
sex, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level.
Cheongsam as School Uniform
Note uniform is plain - markings are signatures of owners classmates
Most schools in Hong Kong have school uniforms and a few schools,
especially girl's schools, retain the heritage of using Cheongsam as
The majority of public and private schools in Denmark do not have
school uniforms. Historic school uniforms remain, however, at two of the
countries most famous boarding schools: Herlufsholm School and Sorø
School uniforms are required by law in the Dominican Republic, in
order to establish equality in education. This law also applies to
private schools, which generally have school uniforms consisting of a
school polo shirt along with a designated pant color.
The United Kingdom & Ireland
School uniforms were first introduced on a large scale during the
reign of King Henry VIII. The uniforms of the time were referred as
"bluecoats", as they consisted of long trench-coat-style jackets dyed
blue. Blue was the cheapest available dye and showed humility amongst
all children. The first school to introduce this uniform was Christ's
Hospital and it is the oldest uniform of any school.
In 1870 the Elementary Education act introduced free primary
education for all children. The popularity of uniforms increased and
eventually most schools had a uniform. During this period most uniforms
reflected the trends of the age, with boys wearing short trousers and
blazers until roughly the age of puberty and then long trousers from
about 14 or 15. Girls mainly wore blouse, tunic dress and pinafore later
progressing towards the beginning of the 20th century to gymslips.
These uniforms continued until the 1950s when after the Butler
reforms secondary education was made free and the school leaving age was
raised to 15. These reforms encouraged schools to implement uniform
codes which were similar to other schools. Distinct "summer" and
"winter" uniforms were sometimes required, particularly for girls where
dresses were mandated for summer and gymslip for winter.
School uniforms are required to be fair for both genders, provide a
reasonably low cost and tolerate religious freedoms e.g. allowing Sikhs
to wear turbans.
Traditionally, Irish schools have followed the British style of
school uniforms. The current school uniforms used in Ireland and are
similar to those in the United Kingdom, but polo-shirts appear to be
less popular than in the U.K..
From the 16th century, students (especially of secondary or grammar
schools and similar institutions) were often subject to regulations that
prescribed, for example, modest and not too stylish attire. In many
cases these regulations were part of wider laws concerning the clothing
of all citizens of certain social classes.
A blue coat became a widespread, obligatory status symbol of
students of secondary schools; it fell out of use during the latter half
of the 18th century. In newer times, school uniforms in any real sense
did not exist outside of convent schools and private boarding schools.
At times, certain fashions became so widespread that they approached
uniform status; this is true in particular for so-called student hats
(Schülermützen) that became widespread from the 1880s on and remained
somewhat popular until they were banned by the Nazis. Their wearing was
advocated by teachers and the students themselves and occasionally made
mandatory, but never on a national or state-wide level. Another instance
are the sailor suits that became fashionable around the turn of the
19th century. These, too, were not usually a prescribed uniform.
The Nazis banned student hats – the last remaining, if voluntary,
form of unified student clothing – because they considered them an
attribute of class society. They did, however, institute mandatory
membership in the uniformed Hitler Youth (HJ) from 1936 on. HJ uniforms
were worn in the Adolf Hitler Schools and in the Napolas; students of
other schools sometimes wore them to school at their own discretion.
In recent times, the introduction of school uniforms has been
discussed, but usually the expression "uniform" (the word is the same in
German) is avoided in favour of terms like "school clothing"
("Schulkleidung"). School clothing has been introduced in a small number
of schools, for example in Hamburg-Sinstorf in 2000, and in Friesenheim
and Haag (Oberbayern) in 2005. In these cases the clothes are
collections of shirts, sweaters, and the like, catering to contemporary
fashion senses. Uniforms in a more traditional sense are almost never
proposed in earnest.
A number of schools also sell branded clothing that can be worn as a sign of school-pride.
Schools uniforms are almost universal in India, from primary to
higher-secondary level. Boys' uniforms often consist of light-colored
shirt and dark long trousers. Girls' uniforms are most often shirt and
skirt. Some schools employ Salwar Kameez for girls. Certain schools
require their students to wear a tie; especially many schools run by
Christian missionaries. As a policy decision, Indian government do not
ban children from sporting religious symbols. Some Muslim girls wear a
veil and many Sikh boys a turban in addition to the school uniform.
Primary schools or Sekolah Dasar (SD) wear a white short-sleeve
shirt with red shorts, or below-knee skirts for females. Red forage caps
and white jilbab are common. Long-sleeve shirts for the more religious
parents of girls are allowed.
Lower Secondary school or SMP: Sekolah Menengah Pertama require navy
trousers with a short-sleeve white shirt. Females wear a below-knee
length navy skirt or longer and may wear either short-sleeve or
long-sleeve shirt. White jilbab for the more religious parents of girls
Upper Secondary school SMA: Sekolah Menengah Atas require blue-grey
trousers with a short-sleeve white shirt. Females wear a below-knee
length blue-grey skirt or longer and may wear either short-sleeve or
long-sleeve shirt. White jilbab for the more religious parents of girls
Most school in Indonesia also have a batik uniform which usually
used on Thursday or Friday. This kind of uniform consist of a batik
short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt with a short or trouser for SMA, and
below-knee skirt or longer for females. The motives and color of batik
are vary depends on the school.
The scouts uniform are also used in many school in Indonesia at
least once a week. The uniform consist of light-brown short-sleeve or
long-sleeve shirt with a dark brown short or trouser, and below knee
skirt or longer for females.
Nowadays, with the increase of the number of private school in
Indonesia, most of them have their own signature school uniform. Mostly
still consist of shirt with short or trouser for males, and skirt for
females which only have differences on the color . But, there's also
many school which have different type of uniform such as wearing a vast,
suit-like jacket, sailor style uniform, pinafore, culottes, t-shirt,
tartan skirt, military-style uniform etc.
Every school also have their own standard grooming. The males never
allowed to have a long hair and not allowed to color their hair either.
Usage of accessories are prohibited for males, while the females
sometimes allowed to use simple accessories. Some schools also pay
attention on the kind of shoes that wear by the student. Black or white
sneakers are the most common shoes to wear in school. On the higher
level education such as in SMA or SMK required to wear black-leather
shoes. The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve. While the
school name and location in the left sleeve. And the emblem of OSIS
(Organisasi Siswa Intra Sekolah) or School's Intern Student Organization
put on the shirt's left pocket.
According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat, about 1,400 Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms.
School uniforms used to be the norm in Israel in the state's early
days, but have since fallen out of favour. However, in recent years, the
number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more.
Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the
school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between
affluent children and those less well-off. Nowadays school uniforms are
mainly associated with schools belonging to the national religious
school system, which is separated from secular Jewish schools. Arab
Israeli schools also frequently require uniforms: for girls, it is often
a pinafore to be worn over trousers and shirt.
Today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the
school logo. In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while
in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters. Although
the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow
students to customize and express themselves even while wearing a
uniform. The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even
those who do not have a lot of money can acquire them.
In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child
uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World
War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian
Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside
However, until the early 1970s many high schools required girls to
wear black grembiule (resembling a doctor smock) on top of their
clothes: no uniform was required for boys. Perhaps this was because at
one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes
(as opposed to junior schools and elementary), and girls may be required
to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts. Indeed this
policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the 1960s and
Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children
with a grembiulino, i.e., a small grembiule, usually shorter and more
colourful, that can be purchased cheaply.
Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the
younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white
grembiulino, while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket,
usually blue or black. In other cases both boys and girls may be
required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule.
Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it.
Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk".
In 2004 the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiules were harmful to pupils.
In July 2008 Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the
re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a
debate in the Italian press.
Japan introduced school uniforms in the late 19th century. Today,
school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school
systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. The Japanese word
for uniform is seifuku.
In the majority of elementary schools, students are not required to
wear a uniform to school. Where uniforms are required, many boys wear
white shirts, short pants, and caps. Young boys often dress more
formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school
year. Girls' uniforms might include a gray pleated skirt and white
blouse. Occasionally the sailor outfit is used for girls. The uniform
codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion. It
is common for both boys and girls to wear brightly colored caps to
prevent traffic accidents. Also, it is normal for uniforms to be worn
outside of school areas. This is going out of fashion and many students
are wearing casual dress.
The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally
consists of a military style uniform for boys and a sailor outfit for
girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress,
themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms. The sailor outfit
replace the undivided hakama (andon bakama) designed by Utako
Shimoda between 1920–30. While this style of uniform is still in
use, many schools have moved to more Western-pattern parochial school
uniform styles. These uniforms consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer or
sweater vest with school crest, and tailored trousers (often not of the
same color as the blazer or sweater vest) for boys and a white blouse,
tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan skirt for girls.
Japanese junior high school students in sailor outfits
Much like the male uniform, the gakuran, the sailor outfit bears a
similarity to various military styled naval uniforms. The uniform
generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a
pleated skirt. There are seasonal variations for summer and winter:
sleeve length and fabric are adjusted accordingly. A ribbon is tied in
the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse. Several
variations on the ribbon include neckties, bolo ties, neckerchiefs, and
bows. Common colors are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black.
Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part
of the uniform. These socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are
typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the
prescribed uniform, alternate forms of legwear (such as loose socks,
knee-length stockings, or similar) are also commonly matched by more
fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.
Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its
students, all schools have a summer version of the uniform (usually
consisting of just a white dress shirt and the uniform slacks for boys
and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with
tie for girls) and a sports-activity uniform (a polyester track suit
for year-round use and a t-shirt and short pants for summer activities).
Depending on the discipline level of any particular school, students
may often wear different seasonal and activity uniforms within the same
classroom during the day. Individual students may attempt to subvert the
system of uniforms by wearing their uniforms incorrectly or by adding
prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Girls may
shorten their skirts; boys may wear trousers about the hips, omit ties,
or keep their shirts unbuttoned.
Japanese high school students wearing the sailor fuku
Because school uniforms are a popular fetish item, second-hand
sailor outfits and other items of school wear are brokered through
underground establishments known as burusera, although changes to
Japanese law have made such practices difficult. The pop group Onyanko
Club had a provocative song called "Don't Strip Off the Sailor
Suit!" Sailor outfits, along with other styles of school uniform,
play an undeniably large role in otaku culture and the Japanese sexual
canon as evidenced by the large amount of anime, manga, and dōjinshi
featuring characters in uniform, Sailor Moon being one of the most
Like most Caribbean countries all students are required to wear a
school uniforms except in tertiary education institutes. Most Jamaican
schools are strict where it concerns uniform, usually specifying sock
colour, shoe colour, the maximum height of shoe heels, and the allowed
earrings (usually small sleepers or knobs). No jewellery is a common
rule, and few schools have restrictions for hairstyles. The most common
uniform worn by boys is the full khaki uniform, often with a crest or
epaulet to differentiate between schools.
Many Jamaican schools have a slightly different uniform for the 12th
grade students in the school, or a completely different uniform with
the same colours used in the regular school uniform.
In Malaysia, school uniforms (Malay: Pakaian Seragam Sekolah) are
compulsory for all students who attend public schools. Western style
school uniforms were introduced to present-day Malaysia in the late 19th
century during the British colonial era, but the present design was
standardised beginning January 1, 1970. Today, school uniforms are
almost universal in the public and private school systems.
The uniforms at Malaysian public schools are as follows:
Malaysian primary school girls wearing the pinafore
A Malaysian secondary school class photo. All but one of the girls sitting in the front row are wearing the baju kurung
+ White shirt and
# Navy blue short trousers; or
# Navy blue long trousers
+ Navy blue pinafore over white shirt; or
+ White baju kurung (a long tunic that covers the arms) over long navy blue skirt
+ White shirt and
# Olive green long trousers; or
# Olive green short trousers; or
# White trousers (generally only for Form 6 students)
+ Turquoise pinafore over white shirt (Form 1 to Form 5); or
+ Turquoise skirt with white blouse (generally only for Form 6 students); or
+ White baju kurung (a long tunic that covers the arms) over long turquoise skirt (Form 1 to Form 6)
Students are required to wear white socks and white shoes with the
above uniform. For modesty reasons as well, most schools require female
students who wear the baju kurung to wear a plain-coloured camisole
In addition to these, schools usually have their own school badges
which must be sewn or ironed on to the uniform - generally at the left
chest. Some schools also require students to sew their name tags in
addition to the school badge. For upper forms, students generally have
to wear a school-specific tie, except those who are wearing the baju
In Malaysia, Muslim girls tend to wear the baju kurung. Most of them
start wearing a white tudung (Malaysian version of the Muslim headscarf
or hijab) upon entering secondary school, for religious reasons.
Non-Muslim girls tend to wear the pinafore. Some non-Muslim girls wear
the baju kurung..
Muslim boys may wear Baju Melayu at school on Fridays, often with a
songkok hat, so as to be dressed for going to the mosque for prayers at
Girls who choose to wear the pinafore, especially those attending
co-ed schools, also usually wear shorts under their pinafore to allow
for carefree movement as the skirt of the pinafore only covers up to the
knee. Those who wear the baju kurung tend not to wear shorts under
their long skirt as their long skirt already covers their legs.[citation
Neckties are often worn by prefects, class monitors, librarians, and
other students of rank. Some schools have neckties as standard issue,
but even then, the neckties are generally reserved for school events and
public appearances, and are not part of the everyday school uniform,
the tropical climate making them uncomfortable.
The hairstyle of students is also given attention by schools and the
Ministry of Education Schools do not allow students to colour their
hair. For boys, there is usually a maximum length of hair allowed, for
example, the hair must be a few centimetres above the collar, and no
sideburns are allowed. Violation of boys' hair regulations is often
punished with a caning but some schools offer the alternative of an
enforced haircut at the school. The use of hair gel is prohibited in
some of the stricter schools, in order to prevent excessive
hairdressing. For girls with long hair, their hair must be properly tied
up, often into a ponytail. Some schools dictate the colour and type of
hair accessories that can be used. Some prohibit even girls from having
long hair. Wearing make up in school is prohibited.
Schools usually enforce their school uniform code thoroughly, with
regular checks by teachers and prefects. Students who fail to comply may
be warned, given demerit points, publicly punished, sent home from
school, or caned.
Traditionally, many New Zealand Intermediate and high schools have
followed the British system of school uniforms, although it is
common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey
short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and pants (long trousers).
This usually consists of a variety of the following apparel: an
'official' school jersey, jacket and tie, a grey/white shirt, pants
and/or shorts, and, in many girls' schools, kilts. Blazers and jackets
are of varied colours according to the school - dark or light blue,
grey, crimson, scarlet, green or black. Some follow the British practice
of having contrasting colours edging the lapels and jacket fronts. Caps
or other headwear have generally been discarded since the 1970s. Where
short trousers are worn, boys are usually required to wear long dark
socks, which may require garters to hold them up.
Being allowed to wear long trousers as part of the uniform, rather
than shorts, often marks the transition from junior to senior classes.
At some schools, seniors are allowed to wear casual clothing, known
colloquially as "mufti".
During the 1980s and 1990s there was a tendency for the traditional
uniform to be replaced by cheaper and more 'modern' options: polo
shirts, polar fleece tops, or a complete doing away with uniforms in
favour of mufti. This trend seems to have been reversed in recent years
and only a small number of secondary schools now do not have uniforms
at all. Intermediate schools usually provide the option of skirts or
culottes for girls and sometimes shorts while boys will wear shorts.
Also bike shorts or tights are sometimes worn under girls' skirts and
dresses. At high school girls will usually wear culottes, skirts or
pants and boys will wear shorts or pants. Some girls' schools also have
navy blue skirts and open necked white blouses long in winter and short
in summer, as the skirts are not allowed higher than below the knee; the
skirts also have splits up the center at the back.
The Northern Ireland Executive supports poor families with the cost
of paying for school uniforms with a £35 primary school uniform
allowance. This is claimed via local Education and Library Boards for
parents in receipt of income support. At the end of August 2009, there
were 24,135 successful applications for the grant. School uniforns
were introduced to NZ in the 18th century.
Due to Pakistan's colonial history public and private sector schools
both have uniforms. Although exact design varies, boys mostly wear
shirts and trousers with a tie, while girls wear a dress or a skirt when
young and the traditional "shalwar Kamiz" after turning 12 or 13.
Uniforms differ between winters and summers e.g. the colour of the
trousers might be different in summers, while in winters students will
have to wear a blazer, in the summer they will usually be permitted to
leave the blazer off.
Although strictly enforced when young, older school children
personalise their clothing e.g. by wearing low coloured jeans instead of
pants, or girls might wear a hijab. Young kids however can face fines,
can be sent back home and can even face verbal and physical punishment
for not wearing the right clothes. Some school provide a day where boys
and girls can wear "coloured clothes" i.e. anything that they wear
normally while others do away with uniforms altogether by the time they
reach A levels.
School uniforms are common in Philippine schools for both elementary
and high school, as well as a few colleges. For boys, a school uniform
normally consists of a white shirt (some similar to the Barong Tagalog)
with short sleeves and slacks of either khaki, black or blue. For girls,
a uniform would be a white blouse with short sleeves, a ribbon, a
necktie and a pleated skirt.
In the 1970s and 80s, school uniforms were usually white
long-sleeved shirts and neckties with black slacks for boys, while short
or long sleeved blouses with ribbon and blue pleated skirts for girls.
During that time, the skirts were usually shorter, ranging from about
half an inch after the upper knee or shorter, while the longest was 1
inch before the lower knee. Due to the growing cases of abuses, the
school uniform code for girls slowly grew stricter until the late 1990s,
when skirts were made much longer.
Some schools, especially for boys, require wearing a coat and tie
alongside the white shirt. But this mostly applies only in colleges and
international schools like in UAAP and NCAA.
In Russia, school uniforms were abolished after the 1917 revolution,
but were re-introduced in 1948. Initially, the new uniform was very
similar to that in place before the communist takeover. Wearing uniform
was made mandatory and pupils were penalized for not following the
The style of Soviet school uniform was modernized in 1962, and since
that time was modified each decade. There could be some variations
across different Soviet Republics. Boys generally wore dark blue pants
and jackets, girls — brown dresses with black aprons and black bows (on
special occasions, white aprons and bows were worn). The members of the
Young Pioneer organization, to which literally every student belonged,
wore famous red neckties. Special sport uniforms also existed for
physical education classes. In the early 1980s, a dark blue three-piece
suit was introduced for girls and the strict rules on haircuts were
In 1992, mandatory school uniforms were abolished. Today, there is
no unified standard uniform in Russia; however, certain schools may have
their own uniform that students are required to wear. Educational
institutions without a uniform may also have a certain dress code.
There is also a modern-day tradition for girls to dress into brown Soviet-style school uniform for their graduation ceremony.
Scottish law is not specific on the question of school uniform.
Generally, the school must provide information on its policy on clothing
and uniform and the Education Authority must provide written
information on its general policy on wearing school uniform. Some
Education Authorities do not insist on students wearing a uniform as a
precondition to attending and taking part in curricular activities.
Children cannot be disciplined for not wearing a uniform if their
parents do not want their child to wear it. However, a child that simply
refuses to wear the school uniform can be disciplined by the school if
it thinks that academic or disciplinary problems might be caused by the
refusal. Many schools do have a policy covering the wearing of school
clothing. The policy may state that certain items must be worn and that
other items cannot be worn, for example, jeans. Schools must take
religious and cultural requirements into account when drawing up a
school uniform policy.
Although the way that the uniforms are worn are usually not an issue
(e.g. height of ties, whether the shirt is tucked in or not), the
selection of clothes worn, whether they follow the policy, can be very
strict. For example, in black and white colour uniform schools, even
wearing colours like grey or wearing white shoes is forbidden. However
in schools that only use a basic uniform (I.E jumper and trousers) the
policy is often less strict.
Singapore has some of the most distinctive school uniforms anywhere.
Uniform is absolutely compulsory for all students, not only at primary
and secondary school but also at the pre-university (Junior College)
level. The normal uniform for boys is shorts or long pants in the
specified colour and material, with a short-sleeved shirt (often white).
Girls' uniforms include pinafores or skirts, with blouses and shorts
Uniform requirements are laid down in great detail by each school
and these are rigorously enforced. Colours and styles for shirts or
blouses, and for trousers or skirts, are tightly specified, and in some
cases the shirt or blouse must have military-style epaulettes, and/or a
metal badge on each collar, and so on. Some schools, most famously
Raffles Institution, have a 100% all-white uniform. Because of the
tropical climate, blazers and ties are worn only for special occasions.
In some schools, ties are also worn on Mondays. It is therefore the
boy's shirt or girl's blouse, rather than a blazer as in the UK, on to
which the school badge must be sewn. Nearly all schools require white
socks and white shoes.Some schools disallow girls to wear coloured bras
At almost all secondary schools, boys are not permitted to wear long
trousers until they start secondary 3 (normally the year in which a
student turns 15, but in certain cases he might be a year or even two
years older). In a few schools, the year of changing from shorts to
longs is secondary 4; and in one or two, such as Catholic High School,
male students must wear short trousers throughout their time at the
As in many other former British colonies, all South African private
and public schools have a uniform, and it is compulsory in all public
schools and in the vast majority of private schools. Uniform types
vary less between public and private schools than they do across
regions, where schools in more rural areas tend to forgo the daily
wearing of ties and/or blazers for boys and girls regardless of their
public or private nature. However, many of these same schools will have a
"number ones" uniform for special occasions which include such items.
In cities such as Cape Town, on the other hand, it is more common to see
formal apparel required in public and private schools on a daily basis.
Many schools across South Africa also provide the choice between a
summer and winter uniform, with khaki uniforms and brown shoes being
very common in the summer. South African law has not required gender
neutrality in school dress codes and a distinction between girls' and
boys' uniforms remains. Boys of all ages are normally required to wear
grey or khaki short trousers with long socks, as in the illustration
(right). Until recently, the straw boater was a common accessory in
affluent public and private high schools, although these have now become
optional in some cases.
Almost all South Korean secondary students wear a uniform called
"교복"(校服, Gyobok). The majority of elementary schools except some private
elementary schools do not have uniforms; however, the uniform is
strictly monitored from the start of middle school and up. Based on
Western-style uniforms, the South Korean uniform usually consists of a
shirt, blazer and tie, with skirts for girls and long grey trousers for
boys. More recently, the uniform is often worn by celebrities who target
the younger, teen audience to sell entertainment products. The school
uniform and school setting is frequently used as a venue for romance. As
a result, the uniform has become something akin to an expression of
fashion amongst students.
All public and private schools in Sri Lanka require their students
to wear uniforms. This is uniform is standard for boys with a white
short sleeve shirt (long sleeve shirt for ceremonial occasions), blue or
white (for ceremonial occasions) shorts for boys under grade 10 (15
years of age) and white longs for boys of and above grade 10.
Girls' uniforms may differ from school to school, however all
uniforms are a white single piece frock. The differences may include the
dress having short sleeves or no sleeves and having a collar or not.
Most girls schools require their students to wear a tie.
For ceremonial occasions both boys and girls may wear the a white or
black blazer (depending on the school, with its badge) with the
International schools have their own individual uniforms of different color and styles.
In Thailand students of all ages from pre-school to college wear
school uniforms. The uniforms from each school and age level are
different. Generally, boys wear a white dress shirt and a pair of
shorts. The color and length of the shorts varies per school. Male
college students wear the same kind of uniform, but instead of shorts
they wear black dress pants. Girls usually wear white blouses and a
skirt. Their skirts vary in color and length depending upon the school
and their ages. Generally the younger students wear long skirts that
almost reach their ankles and the college students wear shorter ones.
Skirts are generally blue or black but may be other colors too depending
on the school. Some schools also have alternative uniforms which
students of both genders wear every other day. These often consist of a
colored shirt and slacks.
In Tonga almost every school, both primary and secondary, employs
the same uniform for its students. Boys typically wear a short-sleeved
white or grey button up shirt without a tie, a blue, grey, black or
white tupenu and a ta'ovala (a woven mat wrapped around the waist and
held in place by a rope of coconut fibres) bordered in the schools
color. Girls wear a white blouse and a pinafore, usually in the same
color as the boy's tupenu.
School uniforms are used in all public and private institutions.
There are several exceptions and most kindergartens do not require
school uniforms. The uniforms vary in their appearance; primary schools
use one-piece blue uniforms while in secondary and highschools boys wear
dark grey trousers with white or light blue shirts, jackets and a tie.
Girls have skirts and shirts coloured like boys plus a tie. Most private
institutions have their own uniforms. School uniforms for primary
schools were black coloured until 1990s.
Turkish school uniforms.
In summer months teachers usually allow their students if they do
not prefer to wear uniforms. Also during trips students usually do not
wear uniforms. None of the universities or higher education institutes
School uniforms have a long history in Turkey. They were first
introduced because normal clothing would give hints about the child's
family's economic situation. In order to prevent groupings amongst
children from different social classes, uniforms were accepted.
Few public schools in the United States have formal school uniforms,
but most have dress codes regulating student attire. Dress codes
usually include limits on skin exposure. They generally include
prohibitions on clothing with tears or holes, exposure of undergarments,
and anything that is obscene, gang-related, or unsafe. Some school
dress codes specify the types of tops (e.g. collared) and bottoms (e.g.
khaki) that are allowed, as well as specific colors (often the school
colors). In recent years there has been a significant increase in dress
codes (see below) for all levels of schooling. In most cases, while
regulations vary greatly, a general idea of what is typically permitted
* Collared shirts (types vary significantly)
* Polo shirt and layered polos
* Flat soled shoes or dress sneakers like Sperry Top-Sider, black Converse Chucks, etc.
* Jumper dresses
* Capri Pants
* Polo shirt and layered polos
* Tennis Dress
* Knee Socks
* Bike Shorts which are like short leggings or tights
* Flat soled shoes or dress sneakers like Keds school days, Mary
Jane, ballet flats, Sperry Top-Sider, black Converse Chucks, etc.
According to the National Association of Elementary School
Principals (NAESP), the fraction of American public schools requiring
some sort of uniform rose from 3% in 1997 to 21% in 2000.
Adolfo Santos, a political science professor at the University of
Houston–Downtown, stated that many Hispanic communities in the United
States choose uniforms because many immigrants originate from countries
with schools requiring uniforms.
In 1994, the Long Beach Unified School District, in Southern
California, required school uniforms in all elementary and middle
schools. This began a trend for uniforms in American elementary public
schools, especially in urban school districts. President Clinton
mentioned LBUSD's efforts in his 1996 State of the Union Address. The
adoption of school or district-wide uniform policies (or, alternatively,
"standardized dress codes" – which are not as rigid as school uniform
requirements, but allow some leeway within set parameters) has been
motivated by a need to counter "gang clothing" (or, in the alternative,
the pressure for families to purchase upscale-label clothing to avoid
their children being ignored by "fashion cliques"), as well as to
improve morale and school discipline.
By 2010, the percentage of U.S. public schools requiring uniforms had increased from 3% in 1996 to 18%.
In Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Department of Education requires all
students to wear school uniforms, and only allows for medical
The Welsh Assembly Government issued detailed guidance to governing
bodies on uniform and appearance policies that begins by making
explicit, "There is no education legislation specifically covering the
wearing of school uniform or other aspects of appearance such as hair
colour and style, and the wearing of jewellery and makeup. However, as
part of its responsibility for the conduct of the school, a governing
body can specify a uniform which pupils are required to wear and other
rules relating to appearance.